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Providing health info to Toronto party people since 1995!

The Trip! Project provides safer sex and drug information and supplies to party people in Toronto's electronic music communities. We neither condone nor condemn the use of any drug, and provide factual information to help partiers make informed decisions that directly affect their long-term health. The Trip! Project! is a grassroots initiative that sprouted in the summer of 1995 and has since nurtured healthy and wise choices among those in our communities. Donate today by clicking on the button below!

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How to Prevent G-ing Out

 

GHB has been up and down in popularity in Toronto’s party scene for decades. Some of the things that make GHB appealing as a party drug are its effects that are often described as being a cleaner feeling and more fun version of alcohol. GHB’s subjective effects are similar to alcohol in terms of the sedation and loss of coordination, but compared to alcohol, GHB tends to feature some slightly MDMAish feeling effects as well, with more pronounced experiences of social disinhibition and increased empathy, as well as more pronounced body high that is usually not present with alcohol. However, this aspect of the GHB experience is nowhere comparable to MDMA. GHB does not usually produce as severe of a hangover or a comedown like alcohol or MDMA might, which contributes to its appeal as a party drug. Some people like mixing GHB with stimulants or MDMA because it mellows out the speed/MDMA buzz while also having a very synergistic effect with the MDMA/speed buzz. Some people use GHB as an alternative to benzos to assist with coming down and sleeping from more stimulating drugs at the end of the night.

GHB has a short duration, allowing one to go from stumbling drunk to sober within a couple hours- the level of intoxication can be titrated within short periods of time within one night in a manner that is not possible with alcohol. For example, you can get plastered at the party but by the time you need to go home, you’re sober enough to safely head home on the TTC without worrying about public intoxication. (Driving is not advised at least 6 hours after the last dose, and ideally not until the day after when one has fully slept).

However, since GHB is notorious for having a very steep dose-response curve, it has been attributed to many accidental overdoses, colloquially known as “G-ing out”, especially if one is not aware of this property of GHB and does not measure their doses. GHB overdoses cause one to go into a deep unconsciousness that resembles a coma, but is actually more like a very deep, unrousable sleep. GHB is actually used medically due to its ability to induce a deep sleep- people with narcolepsy are sometimes prescribed GHB at doses only slightly below what is considered an overdose because it induces a deep, restful sleep. The deep, restful sleep allows narcoleptics to finally be well slept, and no longer suffer from sleep attacks during the day.

Even though it may be a form of deep sleep, GHB overdoses can nonetheless look very scary, with the person’s eyes sometimes not fully closing, which makes them look comatose, or even lifeless. Anyone who is unconscious from GHB should immediately be placed in the recovery position (see below).


Sometimes, paramedics who are not familiar with the effects of GHB may initially be under the impression that one has fallen into a coma and may not recover, because GHB overdoses are able to so closely mimic a coma from things like strokes or severe brain injury. Letting the medic know that the person is overdosing on GHB provides vital information for medics to accurately assess the cause of a comatose state. The unconscious state from a GHB overdose resolves after the drug clears from the system within a few hours, and the unconscious state is temporary despite its severity. The main risk while one is G-ing out is choking on one’s vomit, which is prevented by putting one in the recovery position, or on their side with their mouth facing down. Most milder overdoses of GHB look scarier than they actually are, and the person wakes up feeling fine 1-4 hours later. However, more severe overdoses, especially if mixed with alcohol, can potentially become life threatening. The extremely deep, unrousable sleep often causes alarm at parties, sometimes drawing unwanted attention from authorities.  

The recovery position ensures that a person who is unconscious does not choke on their vomit.

More severe GHB overdoses can cause a very scary mixture of deep unconsciousness with seizures. More severe GHB overdoses usually happen due to mixing with alcohol, as well as accidental consumption, with people thinking it’s water. This is why it’s important to label GHB!

The main instances where one should seek medical attention immediately is if someone is G-ing out is when they are having seizures, or are so heavily unconscious that their breathing or other vitals are compromised. Observe whether a person’s breathing is too shallow or not, the breathing rate (should be over 10 breaths a minute), and the color of their fingernails of the inside of their lips- if it’s turning blueish, that’s a sign of decreased oxygen and medical attention is needed right away.


Compared to opioid overdoses, breathing is usually not as severely compromised with slight overdoses of GHB compared to opioid overdoses, despite the deep level of unconsciousness. That said, if there is mixing with alcohol, the risk of fatal respiratory suppression is high.


One of the issues present with GHB overdoses is that it can be difficult to tell how serious the situation actually is, and whether someone has just slightly overshot the dose and is just in a state of deep sleep, or whether it may be a more serious overdose, whether alcohol has also been ingested, etc. Even though most cases of G-ing out have a good prognosis, with the person awakening in a few hours, it should still be taken very seriously and the person must be very carefully monitored, ideally by a medical professional, or by someone who is carefully observing the person’s vitals and airway, ready to call 911 if anything gets worse.

People G-ing out has led to GHB being stigmatized as a scourge among partiers, paramedics, and bouncers, as a nightmare drug that causes people to drop like flies on the dance floor. As a result, GHB may be highly stigmatized in some circles, despite its soaring popularity.  G-ing out is preventable as long as harm reduction guidelines are followed. As a matter of fact, as long as proper dosing guidelines are followed, GHB is actually less harmful than alcohol as an occasional party drug, as it does not cause the kind of organ damage that even occasional alcohol use has been linked to. Despite the steep dose-response curve, GHB has a low toxicity at non overdose levels, as it exists in the body naturally as a neurotransmitter in sub-intoxicating amounts and is easily metabolized by the liver. G-ing out is not an inevitable result of GHB use and is 100% preventable!



Due to the dramatic nature of GHB overdoses which may cause parties to gather an unwanted level of attention from the authorities, some nightclub owners and party promoters ban it from their venue/event. Despite the stigma it carries in some circles, GHB is still rapidly increasing in popularity in the Toronto nightlife scene.

How to prevent G-ing out:

GHB doses should always be measured in mL, not caps: Bottle caps are inconsistent in their volume and are not a reliable way to measure GHB doses. Even if one always uses the same bottle cap, even the half mL difference between euphoric intoxication and G-ing out is not visible when poured into a bottle cap- a “half cap” can be several mL off from the intended dose, especially if one is redosing. One should always use an oral syringe with mL measurements to measure GHB. Oral syringes can be obtained at any pharmacy, with 3mL syringes being ideal for GHB measurements.

Start with 1mL if using a new batch of GHB: GHB can vary in its concentration from one batch to another, and it is recommended to start with a light dose (1mL) to gauge how strong it is, before diving into the desired dose. 5mL of one batch of GHB might be just below the level of G-ing out for one batch of GHB, but can lead to G-ing out with even a slightly stronger batch, so it is imperative to test the waters first with a low dose.

Wait at least 30-60 minutes to allow GHB to fully kick in: Similar to alcohol, GHB tends to kick in faster than most other orally ingested drugs, with a typical onset time of 10-20 minutes, but like with alcohol, it can take up to 30-60 minutes with a full stomach, so caution with onset times is advised when assessing the effects of a dose.

Do not exceed 5mL within a 3-5 hour period- 3mL is usually all you need: Usually, doses above 5mL lead to G-ing out, and it is not recommended to exceed 5mL in one night, unless the doses are very spread out over longer than 5 hours, and redosing is with not more than half the original dose after it being to wear off. It is recommended to aim for 3mL when seeking the ideal level of intoxication without G-ing out, and 5mL is getting dangerously close to G-ing out.

Redose with no more than half the original dose after 2-3 hours: GHB wears off pretty quickly, and it can be tempting to redose within 2-3 hours. However, even if one feels like they are sobering up, there may still be enough GHB still in the system where the original dose will push one into G-ing out if taken again 2-3 hours after the original dose. For example, if 3mL was the original dose, one should only take an additional 1.5mL to get back to the level of the original dose after it is wearing off. Taking another 3mL can easily lead to G-ing out in this situation. Timing should be taken into consideration, and one should wait at least 2-3 hours before redosing. Put a timer on your phone to note the time of your doses so you don’t lose track.

If you are reasonably fucked up, enjoy your buzz, as more is not better with GHB: The dose of GHB that produces the highest extent of desired effects is usually a tiny fraction below an overdose. GHB is not like some other drugs where taking more feels better- if you feel really good from GHB, that usually means that’s about as good as you can possibly feel before G-ing out. Enjoy your buzz and beware that redosing will lead to unconsciousness rather than increased pleasure. If you want to extend the buzz, you are better off waiting about 2-3 hours and redosing with half the original dose.   

GHB is very dangerous with alcohol, other downers, and dissociatives: These dosing guidelines apply to GHB on its own. Combinations of GHB with downers and dissociatives, especially alcohol, make its already steep dose response curve even steeper, and increase the risk of death from overdose dramatically. If one has started drinking, save the G for another night!

Beware of uppers masking the sedation: Uppers can synergize with GHB in a manner that produces very euphoric effects, with the excess sketchiness of the upper and excess sedation of the G both being neutralized, with one only feeling the desired effects of each. However, uppers can make it feel like one can handle more GHB than one actually can, so these dosing guidelines should be followed even if combinations with uppers mask sedation.

Make sure your GHB will not be mistaken for a beverage: Make sure that your GHB is properly labelled and/or dyed, or kept in a non-beverage container (ex. Nail polish remover bottle).

Written by a Trip! Project peer worker

Legal Weed in Canada and What it Means for You

 

real pot leaf over top of real canadian maple leaf

Marijuana is becoming legalized in Ontario on October 17th.


What will change on October 17th?

  • Marijuana will be legalized for recreational use!  

  • You will be able to purchase marijuana online through the The Ontario Cannabis Store (OCS), physical stores will likely pop up sometime in 2019.  

  • You will be able to use marijuana from the comfort of your home, including your balcony or yard.  Marijuana can be used within condos or apartments, including your units balcony as long as there are no restrictions in your lease or building agreements.  

  • You will be able to buy or possess up to 30 grams of dried recreational marijuana at one time.  

  • Through the OCS you will be able to buy seeds and you can grow up to 4 plants per resident (not per person!).  

    rainbow swirly cartoon pot leaf

     


What will still be illegal on October 17th?

 

blue and pink "aged 19+?"         smoke in car 420 on dash clock          mouth swab for thc

  • You will have to be 19 years of age or older to purchase, use, possess or grow marijuana.  

  • You will not be able to use marijuana in public places, at your workplace or in vehicles.

  • You can not operate a vehicle under the influence of marijuana.  

  • Police will have oral fluid screening tests if they suspect you are impaired

  • There is a zero tolerance policy for anyone under 21, operating commercial vehicles or are a novel driver (license classes G1, G2, M1 or M2).  


What is still unknown with the coming changes?


As time passes more will become clear with how legal recreational marijuana is sold and consumed within Ontario.  There is no clear dates set yet for physical stores but they will likely open in 2019. Police will likely be changing from the oral fluid screenings to test sobriety once a federally approved device is available.  Until then It is unclear what dosage is deemed safe to be found with any individual who does not fall in the zero tolerance policy. Driving under the influence is a danger to yourself and others (like with other substances) and is best avoided if possible.


Will anything change for medical marijuana users?


Medical marijuana follows different rules from recreational marijuana and will continue to do so once recreational marijuana is legalized on October 17th.  Medical marijuana users should continue to purchase their marijuana directly from a federally licensed seller of cannabis for medical purposes.


What are some of the products being sold and what dose should I take?


The OCS has approved 26 licensed producers with the OCS being the only place to purchase recreational marijuana.  On October 17th the OCS will be selling dried and fresh cannabis, cannabis oil and some cannabis accessories. Edibles will not be sold as they are still not legal to be sold by the OCS.  


Common marijuana doses vary: typically smoked buds range from 1/30th of a gram to 1/16th of a gram, for hash or oil the dose is smaller, a normal dose for potent oils is typically less than 1/10th of a gram, for edibles a typical dose can be 5mg-100mg depending on body weight, tolerance and metabolism.  Remember when consuming orally it can take over an hour for you to feel the effects!



Sources

https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/what-you-need-to-know-about-buying-marijuana-online-in-ontario-as-soon-as-it-s-legal-1.4794315


https://www.ontario.ca/page/cannabis-legalization


https://ocscannabisupdates.com/faq/


https://dancesafe.org/marijuana/


Written by some Trip! peer workers

Changing Your Drug Use

There are many reasons why people use drugs. Drugs can provide spiritual experiences, pain relief, a perspective shift, the ability to acknowledge trauma, loads of dancey energy, act as a social lubricant and much more! However the reasons why people start using drugs may not be the reasons why they continue to use. For example, someone may smoke weed at first at a party to experiment or as an alternative to drinking but may continue smoking because they find it relaxing.

street sign that says 'change' with handwritten 'for the better' underneith 

Has your use changed over time? How do you know? When does it start to become a problem? It’s possible for your relationship to different substances to change over time as you and your life changes. One way to check in is by making a list of all the substances you use. Think about the reasons why you started using compared to how you use that substance now. Maybe you started taking Dexedrine at parties to stay up longer, but now you’re using them every time you have a big paper to write or vice versa. It’s okay if your reasons for using are to get high! A lot of people use to cope, escape or take a mental vacation.


Try to be non-judgemental as you consider your use. You may find that your reasons for using alcohol are way different than your reasons for smoking cigarettes. People are often in different places with different substances at different times. Think about the frequency of your use as you go through your list of substances. Has it increased? Decreased? Are any changes affecting your life in negative ways? What about positive ways?


woman smoking weed on porch
(Credit: Darrin Harris Frisby/Drug Policy Alliance)

Reflecting honestly on your own drug use can be eye opening. It’s very easy to fall into patterns of use if you live in a party house or are a part of a community that uses regularly. Our society has lots of preconceived notions about people who use drugs – that drug users are lazy, unhealthy, thieves and criminals. We know that isn’t true! And that you don’t need to be someone who uses drugs to be any of those above things either.

Try to be gentle with yourself while you reflect on your use and think about the ways each substance impacts your life. Are there pieces that you would like to change? Maybe you’d like to keep smoking weed but you don’t want to feel like you’re just coming home and getting couch-locked every night. Or perhaps you use MDMA but could do without the terrible come downs. There are many options to change your relationship to a substance; you can change your dose, how you do the drug (route of admin), the frequency, where you do you the drug, who you do the drug with or take a sober break for a few days, weeks or months. Everyone’s experiences with substances is unique. You get to decide what works well for you and what changes you want to make, if any.

 

For example: 

DRUG

WHY I STARTED USING

WHY I USE NOW

MDMA

-To be more social

-To enhance the party

-To have fun

-To make boring parties bearable

-To feel connected to friends

Alcohol

-To be more confident at parties

-To act silly with friends

-To relax after a stressful day

-To fit in with my friends who drink

 
- Written by S, at the Trip! Project 
 

What is DMT?


Summary: - DMT is a psychedelic drug that is similar to mushrooms, both chemically and in terms of its subjective effects, but known to be far more intense due to its availability in smokeable form. - DMT used to be quite obscure, but has been increasing in popularity lately. - Usually available in smokeable form as a powder or crystal that is white to yellow and has a distinct aethereal smell. The Ehrlich reagent can be used to detect the presence of tryptamine psychedelics. - Have somebody else light your tokes for you! It is very dangerous to be holding a hot pipe full of liquid DMT while you are tripping your face off! - DMT is not physically harmful, but like other psychedelics, it has very intense mental and spiritual effects that are to be taken very seriously. - DMT is one of the few psychedelics that can be smoked, and the quick and extreme peak of smoking a psychedelic leads to a very sudden and intense subjective experience compared to the usual doses of orally ingested psychedelics like LSD and mushrooms. - DMT trips only last about 10 minutes, with a come-up that is less than a minute and a similarly fast comedown, but one should still take time to process the experience despite the short duration.

DMT is a psychedelic drug of the substituted tryptamine chemical class, which includes psilocin, the active ingredient in psychedelic mushrooms, and serotonin, a human neurotransmitter. DMT’s chemical formula is very similar to that of psilocin, differing from DMT only by the addition of one hydroxy group on the 4 position of the indole ring’s benzene ring. Both psilocin and DMT are also similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which presumably is why they partially activate the 5-HT2a receptors, one of 14 serotonin receptor subtypes, which are responsible for the psychedelic effects. It is hypothesized that partial 5-HT2a agonism in the layer V pyramidal cells in the multisensory cortex causes the neurons in this part of the brain to be unable to regulate perceptual signal feedback, leading to perceptual feedback loops that cause psychedelic effects on perception. This process is known as recurrent excitation. Citation  
DMT occurs naturally in the metabolism of the human body at low concentrations, and is present in the metabolism of many plants and animals, and is very widespread in nature. DMT has been popularized in Western culture by ethnobotanist Terence McKenna, and by psychiatrist Rick Straussman. It is speculated that DMT acts as a neurotransmitter in humans at sub-psychedelic concentrations, and there are many wild guesses as to what a molecule that is such a powerful psychedelic in higher concentrations might play in the human body, such as mediating the imagination or perception of everyday life, being the cause of consciousness, and playing a role in near death experiences at psychedelic concentrations. Despite the profundity of this, DMT has never been studied in enough detail to either confirm or disprove the speculations about its role in the human body.
The discovery of DMT in the human body stimulated much less fanfare than did that of endorphins. Anti-psychedelic-drug sentiment sweeping the USA at the time actually turned researchers against studying endogenous DMT. The discoverers of endorphins, in contrast, won Nobel Prizes...

Rick Strassman

How is DMT used? DMT has been used for at least centuries, if not longer, in the form of ayahuasca by the Indigenous people of the Amazon. If DMT is ingested orally by itself, it is broken down by the monoamine oxidase enzyme in the stomach far too quickly for a psychedelic concentration of DMT to be absorbed and reach the brain. Ayahuasca is a brew that is made with a combination of a plant that contains psychedelic concentrations of DMT with a plant that contains harmala alkaloids, which block the effect of the monoamine oxidase enzyme, which are known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs. This prevents DMT from being broken down in the stomach, and it is absorbed orally, and crosses the blood brain barrier. If one is using ayahuasca, one must be aware of drug combinations that can lead to serotonin syndrome, a dangerous medical emergency, with the MAOI component of ayahuasca. Ayahuasca is dangerous in combination with MDMA, SSRIs, DXM, Tramadol, and other drugs that have an effect on serotonin. If you are on any uppers or prescription medications, beware of the combination risks with MAOIs in ayahuasca. Note that pharmaceutical MAOIs have a stronger effect than harmala alkaloids, and are not a substitute for harmala alkaloids for making DMT orally bioavailable.
In the Western countries, DMT is most often available in a crystal or powder form that is smoked/vaporized in the same type of glass pipe that is used to smoke meth. DMT cannot be smoked with a naked flame like cannabis, and needs to be heated with indirect contact with the flame. DMT is able to be absorbed through the lungs without the need for an MAOI like with oral ingestion. This route of administration produces very sudden and intense plunge into the realm of the psychedelic experience, since DMT is absorbed very quickly through the lungs. DMT lasts only about 10 minutes when it is inhaled, as the monoamine oxidase enzyme breaks it down very quickly.
Ayahuasca is also occasionally available in Western countries, although it is more likely that one would encounter “pharmahuasca”, which contains DMT+ Syrian Rue, rather than the very specific plant mixtures that are used by Amazonian shamans. If DMT is taken orally with harmala alkaloid MAOIs in the form of ayahuasca or pharmahuasca, the onset and duration is similar to psychedelic mushrooms, with the come-up from T+30-60 minutes, peak from T+1-4 hours, and offset from T+4-8 hours.  
How to use DMT as safely as possible
“ Sometimes people say, is DMT dangerous? It sounds so crazy, is it dangerous? The answer is: yes, only if you fear the possibility of death by astonishment.” - Terence McKenna

Practice spiritual harm reduction: Even though DMT is physically benign, similar to other classical psychedelics like LSD or mushrooms, the extreme nature of the psychological and spiritual effects are to be taken into consideration- Terence McKenna’s quote above really sums up how it is in terms of that aspect of DMT.
Spiritual harm reduction involves things like only tripping during a suitable set and setting, having trip sitters around, considering what dose one can handle, and leaving time to allow one to integrate the experience of the psychedelic trip into one’s day to day life. Even though smoked DMT only lasts about 10 minutes, 10 minutes means nothing during a DMT breakthrough when one is in a realm where time and space as we know it no longer apply, with an extremely fast transition from sobriety to an extremely strong psychedelic experience that takes only seconds. DMT should only be used while sitting comfortably, as it can cause complete loss of awareness of one’s place in “normal reality” within seconds.
It’s totally normal to feel extreme nerves and butterflies before blasting off, even if one has taken preparations for the experience. For even most experienced psychonauts, the fast come-up may be terrifying, but the fear may settle once the peak effect is reached, with extreme gratitude after one comes back.   
Have someone else light it for you: This is a very important safety tip that is often overlooked! The last thing you want while you’re tripping your face off is to worry about what to do with a hot pipe full of liquid DMT. Smoking DMT can take you from sober to tripping so hard that you can’t even see the pipe anymore within 15 seconds. Discuss with your buddy/facilitator how to communicate that you don’t want another toke, such as waving your hands, as it can be very difficult to communicate normally while blasting off into another realm.
Test before you ingest: Use the Ehrlich reagent to test your DMT. The Ehrlich reagent turns purple in the presence of molecules that contain an indole ring, which includes psychedelics such as LSD, LSA, psilocin, DMT, etc. The Ehrlich reagent is able to rule out the presence of psychedelics in the substituted phenethylamine chemical class, such as the 2C-x drugs, 25x-NBOMe class, and DOx class, which do not contain an indole ring. Since DMT can be extracted from plants via relatively simple means, adulteration is not as common for DMT as it would be for something like MDMA, but it still cannot be entirely ruled out. The main one to watch out for would be 5-MeO-DMT, which is also present in plants, but cannot be detected with the Ehrlich reagent. It is more potent and has slightly different pharmacological effects that give it a heavier body load and serotonin syndrome risk when combined with certain drugs such as SSRIs and MAOIs, which is not the case with DMT. 5-MeO-DMT also has a reputation for being a more psychologically challenging psychedelic than DMT, as it causes very extreme ego loss relative to visual effects compared to DMT. This is why starting with one light toke to test it out is helpful, so that you wouldn’t end up take a terrifyingly high dose by accident just in case it is 5-MeO-DMT.  
What does DMT feel like? How does it compare to acid or shrooms?
"And language cannot describe it—accurately. Therefore I will inaccurately describe it. The rest is now lies… I mean you have to understand: these are metaphors in the truest sense, meaning that they're lies!" - Terence McKenna
TL;DR- similar to a mid dose of shrooms in lower doses, completely and utterly unEnglishable and unimaginable to the sober mind in higher doses. Contact with entities is a common feature of DMT experiences. Start with one small toke and be ready for an intense journey if going beyond one small toke!  
DMT experiences are often divided into what are known as “sub-breakthrough” and “breakthrough” doses. Although the difference between a sub-breakthrough and a breakthrough dose is subjective, it is generally used to refer to the difference between a dosage level that produces psychedelic effects but with awareness of “normal reality” still remaining intact, versus a breakthrough dose, where one breaks through into another kind of reality that is of an entirely different order than anything imaginable in “normal” reality. Sub-breakthrough doses are a lot easier to describe than breakthrough doses- breakthrough doses elude all attempts of description or imagination, and only metaphors can convey what it is like due to the limits of language and imagination in being able to portray such a far out experience.
A typical breakthrough dose is between 40-60mg, which is difficult to gauge by number of tokes due to variations in lung capacity and smoking technique, despite Terence McKenna’s famous three tokes speech. It is recommended to use a scale if possible, and if one is eyeballing it, it is recommended to start with a very small toke to gauge how much it takes for a certain intensity of effects. If one has made an informed decision about intending to break through, it is recommended to fully exhale the air in one’s lungs before taking a toke to take in the most DMT possible, and keep toking until the pipe is not visible anymore. If you can still see the pipe, you need to keep toking if you want to break through- taking another toke in this situation takes incredible amounts of courage. In this situation, preparation and courage of the tripper and the presence of a trip sitter lighting the tokes for the tripper are MANDATORY! It is recommended that one have a history of very high LSD and/or mushroom doses before embarking on a DMT breakthrough.
A very distinct character of the DMT experience that tends to be especially present with DMT compared to other psychedelics is the completely undeniably obvious sense that there are conscious entities or beings in the experience. A lot of mystical experiences with DMT involve contact with entities.
Contrary to popular belief, DMT is not necessarily a more intense psychedelic in of itself than LSD or mushrooms, as breakthroughs into other planes of existence can be achieved with extremely high doses of mushrooms or LSD (5-10+ dried grams of mushrooms or over 500 micrograms of LSD). However, since mushrooms and LSD cannot be smoked like DMT, it’s much easier to reach a breakthrough with DMT with a route of administration like smoking that leads to a such a sharp, fast peak of effects that far exceeds most people's’ highest dose LSD or mushroom trip, with a dizzyingly fast onset of seconds rather than hours.   
Sub-breakthrough Doses
At sub-breakthrough doses, the character of the DMT experience is overall very similar to about a couple to a few grams of mushrooms, but with a much faster onset and shorter duration. The style of visual geometry is curved and warpy like it is with mushrooms, compared to the crisp, angular geometry of LSD. DMT visuals contain a lot of hyperbolic geometry, such as saddles, vortexes, helixes, etc., which might explain why it is so astonishingly ineffable. More on that here.  The geometry of DMT can take on both an “organic” or “ancient” aesthetic like with mushrooms, or a more futuristic “cyber” aesthetic like with LSD. The sense that the geometry is conscious or alive may occur, with the geometry being more than just trippy shapes, but rather conscious geometric creatures that are dancing around in one’s vision- eyes often appear embedded among the masses of geometry. .


One of the differences compared to mushrooms is the headspace at sub-breakthrough doses. At sub-breakthrough doses, DMT is remarkably clear headed compared to mushrooms at doses that feature a comparable intensity of psychedelic geometry. There is usually a very wide gap between the intensity of open eye vs. closed eye visual geometry, and at a sub-breakthrough dose of DMT, one may be able to see extremely detailed and immersive scenes of 3D psychedelic geometry with closed eyes and then open their eyes and be able to describe what they just saw to a friend with minimum mental impairment.  

Alex Grey is a well known psychedelic replication artist. This art portrays an example of the style of psychedelic geometry that may be encountered beneath closed eyelids at a sub-breakthrough dose of DMT, or what may appear right before breaking through. Right before a breakthrough, people often report of experiences of going through a tunnel that may look something like this, where one bursts through to an ineffable plane of existence once one reaches the “end” of the tunnel.
Note the presence of 2D hyperbolic geometry (the curved nets of squares), which is a very distinctive feature of DMT geometry that might explain why DMT experiences are so astonishingly ineffable. The curvature of the 2D plane that the squares are embedded in allows for them to connect in ways that would not be possible if they were on a Euclidean, or flat, 2D plane. At breakthrough doses, the plane of 3D space becomes hyperbolic, or curved through a higher spatial dimension, which cannot be depicted, let alone imagined, in “real life” where one is constrained by the limits of 3D Euclidean space.  
Breakthrough Doses What happens is, the world is completely replaced. Instantly, 100%, it’s all gone. And what is put in its place, not one iota of what is put in its place, was taken from this world. So, it’s a 100% reality channel switch. They don’t even retain 3 dimensional space and linear time. It’s not like you go to an exotic place- Morroco or New Guinea. It’s like, you- reality is swapped out for something else. And when you try to say what it is, you realize that language has evolved in this world and it can serve no other, and... or it takes years of practice. So, what you’re looking at is literally the unspeakable. The indescribable falls into your lap. And when you try- you’re loaded, right, you’re there- and you’re trying to explain to yourself what is happening, and so, this is like you try to pour water over the transdimensional objects in front of you, the water of language, and it just beads up and flows off like water off a duck’s back.  You cannot say what’s there. ” -Terence McKenna
The clear headspace that accompanies the vivid visions of sub-breakthrough doses gives way to the ultimate displacement of “normal” reality at breakthrough doses, with breakthrough doses having an ineffably different headspace than sub-breakthrough doses.
Once one achieves a breakthrough dose, even with eyes wide open, the visual geometry of the psychedelic trip completely begins to fully envelop the entire perception of “ordinary” reality within seconds, and there is a complete and all-encompassing transition towards an ineffably alien plane of existence. One fully loses awareness of where they are in “the real world”. What is experienced during a breakthrough dose is often regarded as being mind-bogglingly impossible. The laws of mathematics, physics, and Euclidean geometry that seem unquestionably fundamental to not only existence, but imagination itself, do not apply to the DMT breakthrough realm of existence. Seemingly fundamental aspects of reality such as pi being 3.141592…, the fact that it’s impossible for a cube to have any number of sides different than 6, 1+1=2, no longer apply in this realm. One may see what a circle would look like if pi was 6, what an 8 sided cube might look like, or how 1+1 can equal 3.
This is often accompanied with contact with entities that inhabit this realm. The entities are often personified as being elves, aliens, fairies, angels, ancestors, religious figures, etc., but usually the way that they actually appear is beyond anything imaginable, and the personifications are usually the result of one’s memory creating a metaphor to bypass their unimaginability. These entities are usually described as being very cheerful and grateful about one’s visit to their realm, although this can vary from person to person.
The entities are usually very eager to show the tripper all the impossible things from their realm, and uncovering the fundamental secrets of existence. The entities usually communicate with direct sharing of experience, with language being unable to convey the extremely mystical experiences they are communicating. A fraction of trippers who break through on DMT experience glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, which occurs when one finds out how to communicate pure experience back to the entities, which for some reason manifests as gibberish “in the real world”. The glossolalia is usually accompanied by an extremely cheerfully exuberant celebratory response from the entities, kind of like how a parent might become overcome with joy when their child speaks its first words.
As soon as one comes back from a breakthrough experience, it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to even be able to imagine what one has just witnessed moments prior, because the laws of math that were broken during breakthrough reality cannot be broken again after one comes back to “normal” reality, not even in one’s imagination.
Integration of DMT Experiences Just like how planning the set and setting plays a role for psychedelic experiences before and during the experience, it is equally important to set aside some time after the experience for integration of the psychedelic experience. Integration refers to the process where the contents of the psychedelic experience are consolidated into one’s memory, thoughts, and perspective of life after the experience. In other words, it is how one processes the experience.
Compared to the usual doses of mushrooms or LSD, which tend to contain insights that are easier to extrapolate towards one’s everyday experience of life and emotions, the insights of DMT breakthroughs may be difficult to apply to one’s everyday life, as the experience itself is so far beyond everyday life. One of the aspects of DMT experiences that can make integration challenging is how difficult, if not impossible, it is to recall the experience within the confines of one’s sober imagination, and the very obvious sense that one’s memory of the experience is not even close to what actually happened, which may be frustrating. It’s important to accept that it may be difficult, if not impossible, to “bring back” the things from the other side, over to this side, and that it is probably for a reason that can only be comprehended during the experience itself.   
Thinking about who or what the entities are: The experience of contact with entities is an aspect of the DMT experience that is very commonly reported, and more consistently so than with other psychedelics. Although it may seem like the entities can be written off as a hallucination, the experience of entity contact seems so real that even the most rationally minded people may have a hard time writing it off as just a hallucination. Even Rick Straussman, a psychiatrist who performed one of the few scientific studies of DMT, has investigated every possible rational explanation he was able to come up with to explain the consistent entity contacts, and has eventually come to the conclusion that these entities truly are real, and exist in some other plane of existence that can be accessed with DMT, and he concluded that there is no other possible explanation for how so many people of all different backgrounds all reported contact with the same entities.
Ultimately, who or what these entities are, and whether or not they really are just a hallucination, can never really be answered empirically as of now. Some people think they’re aliens, some think they are those who have passed away and have not been born yet, and other think they are humans from an advanced future. Even if they are of purely neurological origin, that still does not diminish the extremely significant and profound nature of the experience of encountering them. Regardless, it is important to accept that this is beyond the realm of empirical knowledge, and in the meantime, it’s okay to go with the interpretation that sits best with one’s spiritual inclinations if it is causing excessive rumination. This is part of the beauty of spiritual experiences- it’s not about being right about anything, it’s about finding what is meaningful to you.  
New perspectives of sober, waking reality: One of the most frequently reported interpretations of breakthrough DMT trips is the immense realization that the assumption that sober, wakeful reality is the most “real” of them all is unfounded, and how the possibility of the existence of usually unseen realities that are “more real” is taken for granted.
It’s kind of like like how while one is dreaming, one may make an unfounded assumption that the dream reality is “real” despite the glaring differences that become apparent after one wakes up.  Launching into a DMT breakthrough may make it seem like waking life is a decades long “dream” that one is able to “wake up” from after a breakthrough dose of DMT.
Just like how it may suddenly “click” that what is a siren in a dream is actually one’s alarm clock in “real life”, it may seem to suddenly “click” after one breaks through on DMT that various aspects of “real life” that seem to be a certain way are actually much different in the more “real” version of reality of a DMT breakthrough. Just like how many aspects of existence of waking life disintegrate after one falls asleep and starts dreaming, the aspects of this “higher” reality are lost after one comes back to “real life” after a DMT breakthrough. However, the sense that there is more to it than one can perceive may persist, with the knowledge that one’s experience of waking reality is not the “highest” version of reality being comparable to how lucid dreamers may be aware that their dream reality is not actually the “highest” order of reality there is.
It’s important to be aware that even if it may seem like “real life” is not actually the highest level or reality, that this does not mean that “real life” experiences are to be diminished. Even if a dream is not real, it doesn’t matter how real it is or not when one is in the middle of a dream, and making decisions in dream reality that make the difference between a great dream and a nightmare. Likewise, even if “real life” may indeed be not as real as this higher DMT reality, one is still going to spend decades in this reality- and no matter what happens in the DMT realm, one can still make the best of “real life” reality.
For some, DMT experiences may seem like they uncover a reality that is always there, but is normally unseen, with one’s choices in “real life” being the result of one’s course in this “higher” reality.
"I think the most important lesson that the DMT entities taught me is that the cause and effect relationship between the subjective and objective world is not strictly only that objective things can only affect subjective experiences. It's not like that. This isn't some clockwork universe where you are swept up in some objective mathematical clockwork that you can't think your way out of. This is such a helpless perspective. You can move hyper-dimensional structures with your voice. Every decision and thought you have shifts the timeline of the universe, whether you are aware of it or not. It just doesn't seem that way because this is not visible to the biosurvival filters that your sensory organs put on. I think it shows that it's not only that reality creates you, but also that you create reality. You are not helplessly being swept away in a raging torrent of clockwork existence. You can manifest the things you want with your thoughts. It's just not linear. You won't win the lottery by thinking about it. It's not like some superhero movie, which is what I think most people expect when they hear of manifestation. It's a lot more complicated and less linear than that, and I don't think it's even possible to understand how you are doing it, other than just having faith in your ability to do it. Don't just expect the results- let the results also expect you." - Celestina Aurora Mądry

4-FA || Fluoroamphetamine

 

History

It first began appearing in the early to mid 2000s, and started seeing common usage a few years ago. Colloquial names include “Gentleman’s Speed” and “Flux”. It has shown up in certain circles in North America, but with more widespread adoption in Europe, especially the Netherlands. It is also sometimes sold as MDMA. 4-FA is a new psychoactive substance, and there is still much unknown about its long term effects, and lot of the knowledge of its effects so far is anecdotal. Therefore, one must be aware that they are a guinea pig when taking this substance. Despite the unknowns, there are some things that are known about the effects of this substance and with this knowledge, harm reduction measures can be practiced!
Chemistry

4-FA or 4-Fluoroamphetamine, or if you wanna get even more nerdy about it, 4-Flouroalphamethylphenethylamine, is a stimulant drug that has some entactogenic (huggy/lovey) effects. It belongs to the chemical class of substituted amphetamines, a sub-category of the substituted phenethylamine class. Chemically, it differs from amphetamine only by a flourine atom substitution at the 4 position of the phenethylamine backbone’s benzene ring. This is fancy talk for “4-FA is only one flourine atom different from amphetamine”. 4-FA can be identified with a sky blue reaction on the Mandelin reagent, orange with the Liebermann reagent.


Pharmacology 4-FA acts as a releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. This means that these neurotransmitters get both pushed out of the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft, where they activate the corresponding receptors on the post-synaptic neuron, and they are also being blocked from being taken back up to the presynaptic neuron by the drug molecule’s affinity to the transporter proteins on the reuptake pump of the presynaptic neuron, causing these neurotransmitters to activate the receptors to a much greater extent than usual. Essentially, they are pushed out and blocked from being re-used. The way in which it compares to MDMA and amphetamine is that MDMA mostly acts as a releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor for serotonin, while amphetamine acts mostly as a releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor for dopamine and norepinephrine, so 4-FA is kind of a mixture of all three. Although MDMA also acts as a serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine releaser, it is much more focused on serotonin than the other two, and amphetamine more focused on dopamine and norepinephrine, with 4-FA being a more even balance in its releasing and re-uptake inhibition of either three. [1]
Thus, it is speculated that 4-FA acting as a releasing agent for three neurotransmitters with a more balanced extent among the three may be the reason for its subjective effects that are somewhere in between amphetamine and MDMA- dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agents are generally more “speedy” and serotonin releasing agents are generally more empathogenic. However, the exact nuances of how pharmacological differences correspond to subjective differences remains speculative 4fa pharmacology.png
Subjective Effects
The character of the 4-FA experiences is usually described as less overtly stimulating than speed or coke, and less "lovey" than MDMA (you might not be asking to pet a strangers hair while waiting in the bathroom line for example - but you still might). Eye wiggles, or nystagmus, can occur at higher doses and many of its effects and side effects are similar to speed and MDMA. It generally presents a biphasic pattern of subjective effects where the first three to four hours feature some of the empathogenic effects of MDMA, although not as highly pronounced and to the extent of being a highly spiritual experience as it may be with MDMA, and is generally more of a “party drug” nature compared to the very poignant, emotionally stirring, and soul revealing feelings experienced on MDMA, with the offset of the experience presenting with a milder feeling dextramphetamine like stimulation.
It should be noted that since adulteration of MDMA has become so widespread, many people do not really know what pure MDMA feels like and the more stimulating “party” style of empathogenic effects may be favoured by some partiers, especially if 4-FA is being sold as MDMA and the person doesn’t know they are taking 4-FA. Pure MDMA, which is quite rare these days, tends to be more of a poignant soul searching type experience where you pretty much become a saint for 6 hours (which is why a Catholic priest who tried it back in the day gave it the nickname “ecstasy”) but it also is less stimulating and doesn’t provide as much energy for dancing as might be usually expected for some. 4-FA is still lovey dovey but in a more fun, hedonistic, and hyped up way, similar to how most adulerated M is like these days. The four hours of the more stimulating and partyish empathogenic phase of effects is followed by a dextroamphetamine like stimulation within the following four hours, but of a generally “smoother” or more encouraged nature compared to dextroamphetamine. It is known colloquially as “Gentleman’s Speed” for this reason. Despite the cute nickname and more agreeable subjective effects, it should be noted that all the usual harm reduction strategies that apply to other amphetamines as well as MDMA, apply to 4-FA.
Comparison of Subjective Effects Between Amphetamine, 4-FA, and MDMA

Amphetamine

4-FA

MDMA

Most stimulating, with stimulation feeling harsh or forced in mid to high doses, making it difficult to unwind

Prominent stimulant effects, enhances energy for activities like dancing, but feels more controllable and easier to unwind than amphetamine

Has some stimulating effects that promote dancing, but mild enough that one does not feel too antsy for chill activities like cuddle puddles, and with a distinct anxiety reduction effect that promotes unwinding rather than inhibits unwinding  

Sociability enhancement tends to be based on feelings of ego inflation- social effects result from confidence enhancement. Confidence enhancement may turn to paranoia with high dose/repeated use.  

Aspects of both ego softening and ego inflation. The sociability enhancement is warmer than amphetamine and has some empathogenic effects, but not to an entheogenic (aka catalyzing spiritual experiences) extent

Sociability enhancement is based on feelings of ego softening. Immense feelings of unity, love, and trust that may lead to deep bonds and spiritual experiences. The euphoria is often of a profound nature.

Minimal sensory enhancement relative to stimulation

Minimal sensory enhancement relative to stimulation

Pronounced sensory enhancment- music sounds better than ever, touch feels magical, extreme urge to cuddle

Tendency for compulsive redosing

Tendency for compulsive redosing

Lower rate of compulsive redosing compared to amphetamine or 4-FA

Harsh come-down

Moderate harsh come-down

Softest come-down of the three

Does not feature emotional catharisis

Does not feature emotional catharisis

Ability to induce emotionally cathartic experiences in the right setting


Dosage and Duration
Dosage is usually similar to MDMA, about 80-120 mg or a mostly full small (size 4) capsule, depending on the consistency of the powder. If one is eyeballing this substance, it is recommended to take a few sprinkles, wait for the little bit to take effect, and stagger it out based on how the starter dose feels. Volumetric Liquid Dosing is one way to accurately measure milligram amounts.
Doses between 20mg and 80mg produce effects similar to about 10-40mg of dextroamphetamine, but with a generally more encouraged stimulation that doesn’t feel as harsh, speedy, or tweaky as dextroamphetamine.
The oral onset time is about 30-60 minutes, with a 45-90 minute come-up, which is more gradual than dextroamphetamine, and especially MDMA. MDMA is well known for having a fast onset where one goes from feeling nothing to rolling balls between the 40 minute mark to the 60 minute mark, which is not the case with the more gradual come up of 4-FA. It peaks at about 2 hours after dosing, with effects staying close to peak between 3-6 hours, and about a 4-8 hour offset, with after effects of feeling drained and fuzzy that persist for another few hours. The overall duration is slightly longer than with dextroamphetamine. This will vary based on individual sensitivities. Route of administration is also a variable, and onset time, and duration are decreased if snorted or taken in other ways, in which the onset time tends to be within about 5-15 minutes, with about a 3-4 hour peak and 3-6 hour offset. Snorting 4-FA really burns and is not recommended due to its possibly caustic nature. 4fa duration chart.png
Physical Effects
The physical effects are marked by increased alertness, heart rate, blood pressure, appetite suppression, bruxism (jaw clenching), and nystagmus (eye wiggles). Seizures appear to be rare but possible, especially in those prone or physically stressed. The risk for seizures can be reduced by following the harm reduction measures and not combining with drugs that also decrease the seizure threshold, the details of which are discussed later in this literature.
Sleep may be difficult or impossible until a few hours after it wears off and eating may be an unappealing concept, but still recommended. It’s ideal to eat and be well slept before dosing because appetite will be suppressed and one may not feel hungry or sleepy until 12-16 hours after dosing. These effects are magnified in higher dose scenarios. Some people feel urges to redose when the effects start to fade- this is best avoided if possible due to the long duration, and the risk for adverse mental health consequences like mania or psychosis with repeated use similar to stimulant psychosis that may occur with long binges of other amphetamines. If one does choose to re-dose, set boundaries regarding getting enough sleep and food, and not going on too long of a bender. One thing to keep in mind if one experiences the urge of compulsive redosing is that redosing will generally add more to the comedown type effects rather than restoring the high.
Use as an ADHD Treatment

Due to 4-FA being a research chemical with unknown long term effects, it is not recommended to use this substance at sub recreational doses to self medicate for ADHD, and even if it may be indeed helpful for managing ADHD symptoms and smoother and more easygoing feeling than prescribed amphetamines, there is too much that is yet unknown about this compound for it to be used frequently as an ADHD drug.  
Risks and Harm Reduction

Very little is known about the long term risks of taking 4-FA, and it is likely neurotoxic, like most drugs in the amphetamine family.  A fairly closely related drug, 4-Chloroamphetamine, is highly neurotoxic, but it is unknown whether the fluorine substitution at the 4 position of the benzene ring on the phenethylamine backbone differs in terms of neurotoxicity compared to the chlorine substitution.
The extent to which the neurotoxic effects of 4-FA compare to either MDMA or amphetamine are not very well known. The mechanism of the neurotoxic effects is due to the oxidative stress to the serotonergic neurons that occurs when the drug binds to the serotonin transporter at the presynaptic neuron’s reuptake pump. Normally, serotonin is “recycled” through the reuptake pump back into the presynaptic neuron from the synaptic cleft, with only a specific amount of serotonin present in the synaptic cleft being broken down by the monamine oxidase enzyme. When drugs such as MDMA or 4-FA bind to the serotonin transporter and block serotonin from being reuptaken back up from the synaptic cleft back to the presynaptic neuron, a larger than usual amount of serotonin remains in the synaptic cleft that eventually gets broken down by the monoamine oxidase enzyme. Since more serotonin than usual is oxidised, this causes something called oxidative stress, which can be thought of being like “rusting” of the serotonergic neurons. However, there are strategies that can be used to mitigate this possible risk, which are discussed in more detail in A No-Nonsense Guide to MDMA Harm Reduction, where 4-FA is mentioned as a common MDMA adulterant. Note that due to the RC nature of 4-FA, not much is known about it, and this harm reduction info is based on the assumption that 4-FA has similar risks on the serotonergic system as MDMA.
Such harm reduction measures include:

  • Using only once a season. The biggest variable for neurotoxic effects is frequency of use. It takes a while for the body to replenish depleted neurotransmitters, and the effects of oxidative stress tend to be cumulative. Both MDMA and 4-FA have deleterious effects when used every weekend, and should be spaced out every three months, and once per month at the most.
  • Do not take more than you need to feel the effects. Once you have achieved euphoric effects, taking more will not only take away from the euphoria and increase unpleasant side effects, but also add to the neurotoxicity. Doses exceeding 120mg are not recommended.
  • Body temperature is a huge variable. Chemical reactions generally occur at a much faster rate when the body temperature is higher, and this is especially a sensitive factor in terms of the activity of enzymes that like monoamine oxidase. 4-FA can cause overheating due to the increased serotonin signalling signalling the body to increase temperature, and if the body temperature is higher than usual, monoamine oxidase is much more active and much more oxidative stress occurs compared to a cool environment. Consider the set and setting- if you are using this substance at a summer festival, for example, ensure there are shaded areas and lots of water available, and take breaks from dancing. If the weather is above 30*C, it may be best to wait until after the sun sets to dose.
  • Antioxidants like vitamin C help reduce the extent of oxidative stress, although this is by no means a security blanket for other forms of harm reduction.
  • 5-HTP is not a miracle cure and can be dangerous if not used correctly. 5-HTP must be taken AFTER one has fully come down, NEVER during or before, as this could cause serotonin syndrome- a medical emergency. Do not rely on 5-HTP as a magical serotonin replenisher- it takes a while for all the serotonin in your gut to be transported to the central nervous system. 97% of serotonin exists in the gut, and taking 5-HTP will not necessarily immediately replenish serotonin levels quickly or immediately. The only benefit it has is that it skips one enzymatic conversion from tryptophan- a dietary amino acid that is converted into 5-HTP and then serotonin. 5-HTP should also not be used as a substitute for a healthy diet that contain sufficient levels of tryptophan.   
Cardiac Risks
Based on anecdotal reports, it appears as if 4-FA presents a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular effects than other amphetamines. There have been reports from the Netherlands, where this substance is most commonly used, where a migraine like syndrome consisting of a severe headache occurred after moderate usage of this substance, which has been associated with strokes. IF YOU HAVE A SEVERE HEADACHE DURING/AFTER 4-FA USE, DISCONTINUE THIS SUBSTANCE AND SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION. [2]
Combinations with other psychoactives:
High risk, potentially fatal: 25x-nBOME: This class of substances is notorious for causing seizures, hospitalization, and even death on its own, and 4-FA exponentially adds to these dangers by decreasing the seizure threshold even more. Not only that, but the subjective experience of a stimulant with an unpredictable and dose sensitive psychedelic is very likely to be extremely traumatizing.  
MAOIs such as syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants: These combinations can cause a potentially fatal medical emergency called serotonin syndrome. Other drugs that can cause serotonin syndrome in combination with 4-FA include DXM and tramadol. This is not an exhaustive list.
Buproprion (aka Wellbutrin, Zyban, etc.): This prescription antidepressant is notorious for decreasing the seizure threshold, and seizures are more likely with this combination than with either substance alone.  
Cocaine: The stimulant effects of cocaine can cause the physical effects of both drugs to stack up to a dangerous extent.
MDMA and its stimulant adulterants: The neurotoxiticity is increased with this combination, and the stimulant effects can stack to a dangerous extent.
Other amphetamines (meth, speed, Dexedrine, Adderall, Vyvanse, etc.): Since these drugs have very similar effects to 4-FA, a dangerous extent of stacking of effects can occur, and the neurotoxiticy from either drug alone is increased in combination.
5-HTP: If 5-HTP is taken before 4-FA, or while the effects of 4-FA are still occuring, serotonin syndrome can occur. It is imperative that 5-HTP is taken the next day, not only with 4-FA but any serotonin releasing drug such as MDMA.
Take caution: Alcohol: Both of these substances enhance each other’s neurotoxic effects. Alcohol increases dehydration and the risk of overheating and increased oxidative stress on serotonergic neurons. The long lasting stimulating effects of 4-FA may also mask the subjective feeling of alcohol intoxication, and increases the risk of an alcohol overdose, which should be kept in mind when determining the alcohol dosage. The combination of a stimulant with alcohol also increases the risk for erratic behaviour while intoxicated compared to alcohol on its own due to the dual effect of disinhibition from alcohol with the increased energy and confidence from a stimulant. Although this may sound awesome, in its extreme form, this can result in events like gaining a reputation for getting too fucked up and wrecking peoples’ houses. Being disinhibited and confident may be part of the partying mindset, but only to a specific extent that results in behaviours more along the lines of opening up, letting your confidence shine, and making new friends, rather than biting peoples’ couches and pissing in the ashtray.  
For more information on how to more safely embark on this combo, consult Drug Combination and Poly Drug Use under Amphetamines+ Alcohol.
GHB: This is another example where being careful will not only prevent you from going to the hospital, but will only make you high as balls only within a very specific and moderate dosage range that also corresponds to the dosage range where harms are reduced. This combination can produce the subjective experience of a very powerful (and often pleasurable) body high where the body feels both light as a feather but also comfortably weighed down. If you feel extremely amazing, that means do not take any more G and/or 4-FA or you will end up in the hospital. If you are feeling high as balls, remember that more will not make you feel even higher than balls if you are tempted to redose, and just sit back and enjoy your high as it currently is and do not redose.
For more information about G dosing and the combination with amphetamines, consult Drug Combination and Poly Drug Use under GHB+ Amphetamine.  
Ketamine and its dissociative adulterants: With unadulterated ketamine, the risk of this combination mainly stems from the stimulant subjectively masking the dissociative effects of the ketamine, making it easier to inadvertently slip into a K hole. The combination of stimulation and dissociation is also often very panic inducing for people due to having so much energy within the void of a dissociative hole. This combination is generally only regarded to have agreeable subjective effects with light doses of either substance, with anything higher generally being very panicky. Combinations with RC dissociatives that may be sold as ketamine can become very dangerous, particularly with the PCP analogues- there is an extremely high risk for mania, psychosis, and adverse cardiovascular effects when PCP and its analogues are combined with simulants. Test before you ingest!

 

Opioids: Beware of the tendency for stimulants to subjectively mask the sedation from opioids despite the opioid still exerting its full physical effect. This makes it easier to slip into an OD. With Tramadol, there is a high risk of serotonin syndrome.
Presumably Physiologically benign (tentatively so due to 4-FA’s RC nature!), with a risk for an adverse subjective experience: Psychedelics: As of so far, there are no known reports of physically dangerous interaction with 4-FA in combination with classical psychedelics like LSD and mushrooms, but due to the stimulating effects of 4-FA, there is a high risk of psychedelic crisis. 4-FA does not work as an alternative for MDMA for candy flipping. With psychedelics of the substituted phenethylamine class that have a higher body load (such as the 2C-x drugs), physical safety with this combination is less assured. Beware of bunk acid that is actually 25i-NBOMe, which can be a lethal combination- test before you ingest!
Cannabis: As of so far, there have been no reports of physically dangerous interactions between 4-FA and cannabis, although the tendency for cannabis to enhance the effects of other drugs should be taken into consideration in regards to the subjective outcome of this combination.

Sober-friendly bars in Toronto

See our upcoming guide to how to still be social when you're trying to cut back on drinking! 

 

 

GOTTEN FROM FAITH AT PIECES TO PATHWAYS: Might be helpful for folks who are feeling alienated from the party scene because of recovery <3

Sober-friendly bars in Toronto

(Last updated June 2017)


This is a dynamic, crowd-sourced* list of bars and pubs in Toronto that overtly cater, in one way or another, to people that do not drink. Its purpose is to serve as a reference for sober people (be they in recovery, temporarily abstaining from booze, or are teetotal) who wish to go on a date or celebrate an occasion with something more adult than a ginger-ale or a shirley temple.


Bars that meet this criteria will:


  1. Have mocktails listed on their menu
  2. Have a good selection of non-alcoholic beers, either in bottle or on draught
  3. Have an interesting alternative to classic bar beverages (e.g. kombucha on tap)
  4. Consistently respond positively to the “surprise me!” request for an off-menu mocktail

At the bottom, there’s a list of sober un-friendly bars, including testimonials from people who had an issue trying to order a non-alcoholic drink. This section may be useful for people in recovery who wish to avoid bars that have been known to be problematic.


If you have a bar to add to the list, a suggestion about the criteria, a correction, wish to vouch for a bar with an off-menu mocktail list, or have any other questions, please send a note to ash.mogg@gmail.com.


Cheers! (pun intended)

*Bunz Helping, Dating, Sober zones on Facebook; Twitter

West end


The Ace

Great off-menu mocktails vouched for by: 1 person


Biermarkt

Large selection of non-alcoholic beer

  • Beck’s Lager
  • Erdinger Alkoholfrei
  • Krombacher Hefeweizen
  • Krombacher Pilsner
  • Krombacher Radler  
  • Weihenstephaner Alkoholfrei Hefeweissbier

Burdock

Kombucha on tap


Drake Hotel

Mocktail section called boozeless cocktails, carefully crafted with love


The Gaslight

Great off-menu mocktails vouched for by: 1 person


The Good Son

Great off-menu mocktails vouched for by: 1 person


The Lockhart

Mocktail section on menu


Nightowl

Extensive non-alcoholic drink list, called “drink menu for heroes” <3


East end

Dundas and Carlaw

Kombucha on tap


The Only

Bar on one side, a sweet cafe on the other, and you’re free to bring drinks to either side.


Central

The Clocktower

From a NOW Toronto review, this place has a “a small but thoughtful list of non-alcoholic drinks.”


Bars that may be sober un-friendly


  • The Steady
    • “the bartender/owner (?) has been super condescending to me when i ask for drinks w/o alcohol.”
  • Black Cat Espresso Bar
    • “Bartender/owner would not serve a non-alcoholic drink for anything less than seven dollars (the price of a pint)”

  • Lucky Shrike
    • “I didn't get the friendliest response at Lucky Shrike when I asked if they had Red Bull (aka the unofficial bar drink of people in recovery haha)”

What To Do Instead of Calling the Police - Some Options

The below is some great info about what you can do instead of calling the police if calling the police doesn't feel safe. We still recommend calling 911 for an overdose or emergency situation if you feel safe to do so, and the Canadian Good Samaratin Law that was passed earlier in the year should help with a lot of fears, but not all. See an upcoming post about if the Good Samaritan Law protects you or not. 

 

 

TAKEN FROM AN ONLINE COLLABORATIVE GOOGLE DOC

What To Do Instead of Calling the Police

A Guide, A Syllabus, A Conversation, A Process


So, you understand that the police force in the U.S. upholds a system of racialized violence and white supremacy. You know that, when police get involved, black people, Latinx people, Native Americans, people of color, queer & trans people, sex workers, women, undocumented immigrants, and people living with disabilities and mental illness are usually in more danger, even if they are the victims of the crime being reported. You know that police violently escalate peaceful interactions and murder black people with impunity every single day in this country.


But, your neighbor is setting off fireworks at 3am, or there’s intimate partner violence happening outside your window, or you see someone hit their child in public… What do you do? What do you do instead of calling the police? How do you keep yourself safe without seeking protection from a system that is predicated upon the surveillance and extermination of others?


We start by shifting our perspective. We start by learning about the racist history of the police. We start by saying, an alternative to this system should exist. We start by pausing before we dial 911. We start by making different choices where we can. We start by getting to know our neighbors and asking them to be a part of this process.


As Taj James writes, “White friends and family, I think we are better off without the police. I think we might be safer, happier, healthier if there were no police. In addition to fewer Black people being killed by those police our life would be much better. I am starting to think we are better off without them. That we don't need them. That if we shut them all down today and transferred all the resources they control to communities to set up systems of community safety and accountability we would all be much happier. My gut is that when white people are able to say ‘Having no police is better than what we have now’ that will reflect the willingness and courage needed to make a fundamental transition from an old system to a new one.”


Below is an in-progress list of resources on alternatives to policing, which range from the theoretical to the practical.


An expanded document with synthesized best practices & case studies will be available by late fall 2016. Stay tuned!


If you’d like to add to or suggest a correction to this list, please email me (Aaron Rose) at aaronxrose at gmail dot com or alternativestopolice at gmail dot com. I'm currently taking responsibility for developing and managing this document, but if other people would like to help, or think I should be doing things differently, I'm happy to work with you and/or transfer ownership. [Edit: Thank you to everyone who has contributed and reached out so far. I’m responding to emails as quickly as I can!]



 


What To Do Instead of Calling the Police


A New Year’s Resolution: Don’t Call the Police (Truthout)


Alternatives to Policing (Justice in Policing)


Alternatives to Police (Rose City CopWatch)


Alternatives to the Police (McGill Daily)


Audre Lorde Project’s Safer Party Toolkit: How to run a safe party that doesn’t need police presence to maintain safety. (Español | Zine version) (some content is NYC-specific)


Big Dreams and Bold Steps Toward a Police-Free Future (Truthout)


Calling Someone Other than the Cops (The Atlantic)


Chain Reaction: Alternatives to Policing (WeChargeGenocide.org)


Creative Interventions Toolkit: An incredible organization created by Black and Asian feminists that interviewed people about what they did to intervene in partner abuse and sexual assault without the state. This is one of the things they created - a huge guidebook with tons of concrete examples, stories and tools for how folks have done this work.


Critical Resistance Abolitionist Toolkit


Imagine Alternatives: Finding Ways Not to Call the Police (Caroline Loomis): An open letter, a resource list, and some great exercises for stretching your imagination to consider why you call the police and how you might make different choices and build alternatives in the future.


INCITE!’s Stop Law Enforcement Toolkit


INCITE!’s Community Accountability Best Practices


Nashville Feminist Collective: Feminism in a Prison Nation: An amazing resource list examining carceral feminism, an approach to gender-based violence that sees the criminal legal system as the primary solution.


Policing is a Dirty Job and Nobody’s Gotta Do it: 6 Ideas for a Cop-Free World (Rolling Stone)


Stop Violence Everyday: Another project of Critical Interventions, lots of stories of folks intervening in partner abuse and sexual assault.


Ten Lessons for Creating Safety Without Police: A Reflection on 10 Years of the SOS Collective

The Revolution Starts At Home: A book co-authored by Leah Lakshmi Piepzna-Samarasinh, Ching In Chen, and Jai Dulani about abuse inside activist communities and how folks have dealt with it without the cops (was out of print, is now back in print).


Transformative Justice Resource List (USPrisonCulture.com)


Vikki Law: Resisting Gender Violence Without Cops or Prisons


What To Do When Someone is Having a Mental Health Crisis on the Street (SF Bay Area specific)


 


Alternatives to Policing Projects / Organizations / Tools


Audre Lorde Project’s Safe Outside the System (SOS) seeks to empower community members to be proactive in preventing anti-LGBTQ violence, intervene when violent situations arise, and build stronger relationships between LGBTQ people of color, our allies and the community as a whole.


BYP100 Case Study in Community Accountability


CAHOOTS (Eugene, Oregon): “Crisis Assistance Helping Out On The Streets provides mobile crisis intervention within the city limits of Eugene, dispatched through the Eugene police-fire-ambulance communications center. Each team consists of a medic (either a nurse or an EMT) & a crisis worker (who has at least several years experience in the mental health field). CAHOOTS provides immediate stabilization in case of urgent medical need or psychological crisis, assessment, information, referral, advocacy & (in some cases) transportation to the next step in treatment. Many, but not all, of our clients are homeless.”


Cure Violence stops the spread of violence in communities by using the methods and strategies associated with disease control – detecting and interrupting conflicts, identifying and treating the highest risk individuals, and changing social norms – resulting in reductions in violence of 40% to 70%. Note: this program is now state-sponsored, which some people feel undermines its efficacy and sustainability.


People’s Community Medics: An organization created by Black women in East Oakland that is a community controlled alternative and/or addition to calling 911 for emergency medical care. They created it after the ambulances were just not showing up or cops were showing up first.


Philly Stands Up: An organization that works with folks who have committed sexual assault or partner abuse who want to take accountability.  This is their document where they talk about how they work with perpetrators.


Richmond, CA Case Study


 




Apps for Coordinating Community Crisis Response (instead of calling the police)


Buoy (mobile & desktop app): A community-based crisis response system.

(developers’ chat room for troubleshooting set up | user-to-user support forum | github wiki | if you need additional help figuring out how to set up Buoy on your site, Maymay may be able to help: https://maymay.net/)



 


Resources on Racism & The Police


Corinne Werder on the History of the Police


Curriculum for White Americans to Educate Themselves On Race and Racism





What is Fentanyl/Carfentanil, and Why Should I Care?

You may have been hearing about fentanyl or carfentanil in the news lately, or hearing concern about 'super strong opioids'. Fentanyl and carfentanil are very potent drugs from the opioid family. They're sedatives and painkillers, and have been in fairly commonly used medically (usually for long-term pain management) since the early '90s. They have been used surgically for much longer but not particularly as well known.


Fentanyl and carfentanil can be very dangerous when not dosed properly, because a reasonable dose for someone without tolerance can be micrograms. That's 1000 times smaller than the amount of powder in an average capsule of MDMA.


Unfortunately, other non-opioid street drugs are now showing up across North America contaminated with these super strong opioids in varying amounts. Traditionally they would only show up as cuts in heroin or other opioids like fake oxys, but due to increased supply it has been found in cocaine, speed, meth and other drugs.   

 

 

Fentanyl white powder

 


Here are some ways you can help keep yourself safer:


START SMALL!

  • Whenever you or a friend get a new batch of anything, try a tiny amount (like a quarter dose) and wait a couple hours before doing a proper dose. If you've had opioids medically or recreationally before, the feeling should be familiar if there's fentanyl in it. Effects often include a warm tingly buzz in the head, accompanied by a bit of nausea and pupils getting smaller. Some people get itchy as well, especially with larger amounts.


FILTER AND DISSOLVE!

  • Because fentanyl is so potent, if it is mixed into a different drug and not mixed evenly, some parts could be safer/what you’re expecting while others could have enough fentanyl to cause an OD.

  • If you dissolve the drug in water (preferably distilled), you can ensure that any fentanyl or other strong opioid will be evenly distributed throughout the liquid.

  • For extra safety, use a syringe and needle to draw the liquid through a filter to remove any unwanted particulates before use.

  • ORALLY: You can then drink the liquid (after trying a tiny bit and waiting of course).

  • RAILING: You can snort the liquid and it will work even more efficiently than snorting powder with less damage to your nose tubes. Use a smaller amount of water if this is your plan.

  • INJECTING/HOOPING/PLUGGING: You're probably already doing these steps, so continue performing admirably and be sure to start with a SMALL AMOUNT.


KEEP CALM AND CARRY NALOXONE! (Also: PARTY WITH A FRIEND!)

  • Partying with friends is a great safe guard to a fatal OD. Ideally at least someone present will be able to call 911 and maybe even give you Naloxone and do CPR.

  • Make sure there are a few naloxone kits around just in case. These can be picked up from The Works at 277 Victoria St. (Yonge & Dundas) in Toronto or any pharmacy SHOULD have them available over the counter. Not everywhere has them right now and not everywhere does a good training on how to use them, but you should at least be able to access them.

  • Someone other than the person doing the drugs first should know how to use Naloxone kits too.

  • Naloxone is essentially an antidote for opioid overdose. When administered in sufficient amounts, it will stop an overdose long enough for medical professionals to arrive at the scene. This will run out after about 30-40 minutes, putting the person who OD’d at risk of ODing again so it’s super important that they go to a hospital!

  • When in doubt, it's better to administer naloxone, because it won't physically harm them even if they aren't on opioids.

  • If the person being given naloxone is dependent on opioids, it will put them into withdrawal which can be very unpleasant, but it's still worth it to save a life.

  • The Good Samaritan Law was just passed in Canada, which means that you can’t be arrested for drug-related charges after calling 911 for an OD. (You can still be arrested if you have warrents out and it’s still a good idea to stash any actual drugs or paraphernalia away before authorities show up).


A note on drug checking and testing kits:

  • There are a number of organizations currently working on street level strong opioid test kits, but outside of proper lab testing we don't have any highly reliable options available at the moment. When these become available they will provide an additional safeguard to help prevent accidental fentanyl consumption.

 
Written and edited by Trip! Project
Fentanyl poster created by Humber College students for the ZeroHarm.ca campaign 

A Partiers’ Guide to (Increasing) Internet Security - Part 1


“From now, know that every border you cross, every purchase you make, every call you dial, every cell phone tower you pass, friend you keep, article you write, site you visit, subject line you type, and packet you route, is in the hands of a system whose reach is unlimited but whose safeguards are not.” - Edward Snowden

internet security

 

A Partiers’ Guide to (Increasing) Internet Security

Using drugs is risky business. Prohibition (drugs being illegal) makes it so that every step of the way from buying drugs, having drugs on you and even being high once you do them could land you in deep legal trouble.

Let’s talk about three important topics: drugs, security and the dance music community. In an ideal world these could all happily co-exist, yet in reality these three topics in our society don't get along too well. One of the most troublesome and obvious relations lies between drugs and security. People who use are treated differently in society via prohibition. As a result, their inherent human right to personal security is frequently and seriously threatened, if not entirely disregarded. Socially, these folks may be ostracized and dis-empowered, facing stigma on a daily basis; legally, they are under threat of persecution. Physically and emotionally, they are often victims of violence, trauma, medical neglect and an absence of adequate social supports, including harm reduction resources.


The use of illegal substances does not occur in a vacuum, it occurs within a broad context; Individuals from all walks of life use substances for reasons often complex and multifaceted. The right to individual privacy becomes substantially more complicated when we think to consider the the socio-economic implications of substance use and its impact on the hundreds of millions of people internationally who consume illegal drugs. As a result, a person who uses substances becomes most vulnerable when they speak to others about using and drugs.  


A recent report analyzed the stated privacy protocols of 43 common Canadian internet service providers (ISPs). The results uncovered that most service providers don't share much information  about what they do with your information.  "It appears that many Canadian internet carriers are in violation of their legal responsibilities" under Canadian privacy law, says the report entitled "Keeping Internet Users in the Know or in the Dark”.  "Generally speaking, most carriers in Canada … score quite poorly in terms of privacy transparency — an average of two out of 10 stars, which is fairly low,".


Thankfully, there are groups of activists who advocate for our right to cyber privacy. Since a Supreme Court ruling in 2014, Canadians have the right to be anonymous on the internet and police must obtain a warrant to uncover their identities.  A recent decision from the Supreme Court bans internet service providers from disclosing the names, addresses and phone numbers of their customers to law enforcement officials voluntarily in response to a simple request — something ISPs have been doing hundreds of thousands of times a year.  Law enforcement now require an appropriate warrant before they can access an individual’s private digital information. Yet this does not mean that service providers can’t willingly give law enforcement access to someone's private information without a warrant and currently, ISPs are notorious for sharing personal data of their customers!


Law enforcement agencies worldwide in recent years have been investing considerably in monitoring social media and other forms of electronic communication as a new investigative tool to search for clues and prevent or prosecute crime.  “Canadian police have adopted social media faster than most U.S. forces.”  For instance, “One man from the Greater Toronto Area, identified as Sunith Baheerathan on Twitter (@Sunith_DB8R), learned this the hard way on Tuesday when his tweet “Any dealers in Vaughan wanna make a 20sac chop? Come to Keele/Langstaff Mr. Lube, need a spliff” attracted the wrong kind of attention.This fellow thought it might be ok to tweet requests for pot but quickly learned that his actions put him at real risk of prosecution by law enforcement. It was a choice that put his security at risk. This example illustrates how a such a small mistake online could promptly get you in trouble with the law.  It’s important to understand that police officers can and do create false identities and profiles on social media websites to investigate and monitor individuals they may believe to be engaged in some form of illicit activity.


Facebook has recently filled a massive lawsuit against the Drug Enforcement Agency of America for engaging in these covert operations.  Always be careful of anything you post on social media: photos from house parties with evidence of drug use in the background, images of controlled substances, pot, bongs, baggies, white powders, or large stacks of cash can be enough evidence for an officer to initiate an investigation into you. Anything uploaded to the internet is there for life.  This could also jeopardize future employment opportunities, employee screening often includes a review of social media accounts.  Modify your privacy settings to be as secure as possible so only trusted people can view your posts.


Do not talk openly about any illicit activity including drugs via unsecured electronic communication; law enforcement has the capability to intercept text messages, phone calls, emails and facebook messages.  Police will often lurk social media to find private house parties to raid. To deter this, you can make the event an invite only closed group and send the location to the party-goers personally. Before accepting new friend requests, you might want to ask where they know you from, and if in doubt you can message some of the people on their friends list to verify that in fact they are a real person. In some regions, undercover officers post social media or classified advertisement websites in an attempt to entrap people who use drugs by offering illicit substances for sale or using code words like, “I’ve got party favors”  “It’s snowing out who wants to go skiing” or “My friends tina, molly and gina are all here having a party! Anyone want to hangout with them”.  Entrapment is legal in some regions depending on the local laws.


Now, you may say, “Well, I’m not silly enough to head to twitter to buy my pot!” Good! However, there are always opportunities to make mistakes when it comes to security. Total security is unachievable, but with the right knowledge and tools, individual and group security levels can be increased significantly. So let's take a look at some of the tools available, and learn how to use them with security in mind!

 Part 2 coming soon! 

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